Deerhound

A passionate little blog started by a deerhound dog in Scotland called Rogue ‘Brylach’ MacAllister and Passed to Rascal ‘Logan’ Dorrator Heath

Monday, March 24, 2008

Of Englishe dogges the diuersities, the names, the natures, and the properties.

Today we have a fantastic historical reference.

Author: Caius, John, 1510-1573.
Title: Of Englishe dogges the diuersities, the names, the natures, and the properties. A short treatise written in latine by Iohannes Caius of late memorie, Doctor of Phisicke in the Vniuersitie of Cambridge;
and newly drawne into Englishe by Abraham Fleming student. Seene and allowed.
Copy From: Cambridge University Library

Scroll to the foot of this posting to view the original publication in facsimilie form.

This document raises some interesting points in the search for deerhound history and may lend creedence to the Scottishness of the deerhound.

Before searching for the deerhound I would first like to point to a particular favourite part to this document supporting the historical significance of such, comes from the appendix . . .
‘SAgax, in Englishe Hunde, is deriued of our English word hunte. One letter chaunged in another, namely, T, into D, as Hunt, Hunide, whom (if you coniecture to be so named of your country worde Hunde which signifieth the generall name Dogge, because of the similitude and likenesse of the wordes I will not stand in contradiction (friende Gesner) for so much as we retaine among vs at this day many Dutche wordes which the Saxons left at such time as they occupyed this country of Britane. Thus much also vnderstand, that as in your language Hunde is the common word, so in our naturall tounge dogge, is the vniuersall, but Hunde is perticuler and a speciall, for it signifieth such a dogge onely as serueth to hunt, and therfore it is called a hunde.’

Back to the search for Scottish Deerhounds, in the near opening of the document we find the communicae . . .
‘I wrote moreouer, vnto you seuerally, a certayne abridgement of Dogges, which in your discourse on the fourmes of Beastes in the seconde order of mylde and tameable Beastes, where you make mencion of Scottishe Dogges, and in the wynding of your Letter written and directed to Doctour Turner, comprehending a Catalogue or rehersall of your bookes not yet extant, you promised to set forth in print, an openly to publishe in the face of the worlde among such your workes as are not yet come abroade to lyght and sight. But, because certaine circumstaunces were wanting in my breuiary of Englishe Dogges (as semed vnto mee) I stayed the publication of the same, making promise to sende another abroade, which myght be commytted to the handes, the eyes, the eares, the mindes, and the iudgements of the Readers.’
which in effect is the attempting of the time, to address and catalog regional varients.

Where the author covers Sighthounds he points predominently to the gazehounds being found more in the north and indeed points toward Scottische being part and parcel of these bucke hunting hounds.
‘I cal the~ vniuersally all by the name of English dogges, as well because England only, as it hath in it English dogs, so it is not without Scottishe, as also for that we are more inclined and delighted with the noble game of hunting, for we Englishmen are adicted and giuen to that exercise, & painefull pastime of pleasure, as well for the plenty of fleshe which our Parkes and Forrests doe foster, as also for the oportunitie and conuenient leasure which we obtaine, both which, the Scottes want.’
A rather pompous statement of course, but perhaps pointing towards hunting more as a sport rather than a provider of food for the table. We have pointed out in the past why greyhounds were prefered with colour so as they could easily be identified, viewed and wagered upon. Unlike the deerhound which had and still has a functional coat for the weather and colour from it’s ancient wolf origins.

Also interestingly on the geographical aspect of the Gazehounds . . .
‘These Dogges are much and vsually occupyed in the Northern partes of England more then in the Southern parts, & in caldy landes rather then in bushy and woody places . . .’

Attributes of celtic folklore and nature of the deerhound and greyhound can indeed be found in the tale of King Richard thus . . .
‘The nature of these dogges I finde to be wonderful by ye testimoniall of histories. For, as Iohn Froisart the Historyographer in his 4. lib. reporteth. A Grehound of King Richard, the second yt wore the Crowne, and bare the Scepter of the Realme of England, neuer knowing any man, beside the kings person, whe~ Henry Duke of Lancaster came to the castle of Flinte to take King Richarde. The Dogge forsaking his former Lord & master came to Duke Henry, fawned on him with such resemblaunces of goodwyll and conceaued affection, as he fauoured King Richarde before: he followed the Duke, and vtterly left the King.’
A moral that recurs within many of the Scottish highland folktales.

The Bloodhounds descriptor can be considered amusing, as we must remember that historically the period was not far removed from Flodden and was during the period when the French considered and welcomed Mary Queen of Scots as the Queen of England (some were not amused). So in England, it was only wise to consider Scots as ‘yll disposed varlots’ for the sake of stirring up paranoia and the controlling of public opinion, much like politicians do for their peoples the world over, today (– some things never change).

Bloodhounds
‘The owners of such houndes vse to kepe them in close and darke channells in the day time, and let them lose at liberty in the night season, to th'intent that they myght with more courage and boldnesse practise to follow the fellon in the euening and solitarie houres of darkenesse, when such yll disposed varlots are principally purposed to play theyr impudent pageants, & imprudent pranckes. These houndes (on whom this present portion of our treatise runneth) when they are to follow such fellowes as we haue before rehersed, vse not that liberty to raunge at wil, which they haue otherwise when they are in game, (except on necessary occasion wheron dependeth an vrgent and effectuall perswasion) when such purloys make spedy way in slight but beyng restrained and drwne backe from running at randon with the leasse, the ende whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded, and directed with such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote, or whether be ryde on horsebacke) as he himselfe in hart would wishe for the more easie apprehension of these venturous varlots. In the borders of England & Scotland, (the often and accustomed stealing of cattell so procuring) these kinde of Dogges are very much vsed and they are taught and trayned first of all to hunt cattell as well of the smaller as of the greater grouth and afterwardes (that qualitie relinquished and lefte) they are learned to pursue such pestilent persons as plant theyr pleasure in such practises of purloyning as we haue already declared.’
Ahh . . . the Border Reivers

Finally, a point that may be reffering to the Irish wolfhound, especially when read in the full context of this treatise . . .

‘A starte to outlandishe Dogges in this conclusion, not mpertinent to the Authors purpose.

VSe and custome hath intertaines other dogges of an outlandishe kinde, but a fewe and the same beyng of a pretty bygnesse, I meane Ireland, dogges curled & rough al ouer, which by reason of the lenght of their heare make showe neither of face nor of body. And yet these rrres, forsoothe because they are so straunge are greatly set by, esteemed, taken , and made of many times in the roome of the Spaniell gentle or comforter. The natures of men is so moued, nay rather marryed to nouelties without all reason, wyt, iudgement or perseueraunce’

If this is the wolfhound reffered to, then its similarity to the deerhound (how often has one heard the comment ‘a wolfhound’, when we deerhounds are observed in public) indicates that the deerhound would be considered likewise and may have been rarely seen in England of the 16th century.

To enjoy the full text and gather your own conclusions - read on below or visit the Cambridge Library and tell them ‘Rogue’ the Scottish Deerhound sent you.

Enjoy!



Of Englishe Dogges, the diuersities, the names, the natures, and the properties.

A Short Treatise written in latine by Iohannes Caius of late memorie, Doctor of Phisicke in the Uniuersitie of Cambridge; And newly drawne into Englishe by Abraham Fleming Student.

Natura etiam in brutis vem ostendit suam.

Seene and allowed.

Imprinted at London by Rychard Iohnes, and are to be solde ouer against S. Sepulchres Church without Newgate. 1576.

A Prosopopoicall speache of the Booke.

SOme tell of starres th'influence straunge,
Some tell of byrdes which flie in th'ayre,
Some tell of beastes on land which raunge,
Some tell of fishe in riuers fayre,
Some tell of serpentes sundry sortes,
Some tell of plantes the full effect,
Of Englishe dogges I sound reportes,
Their names and natures I detect,
My forhed is but baulde and bare:
But yet my bod'ys beutifull,
For pleasaunt flowres in me there are,
And not so fyne as plentifull:
And though my garden plot so greene,
Of dogges receaue the trampling feete,
Yet is it swept and kept full cleene,
So that it yeeldes a sauour sweete. Ab. Fle.

DOCTISSIMO VIRO, ET Patrono suo singulari D. Perne, Eliensis ecclesiae Cathedralis dignissimo Decano, Abrahamus Flemingus,.

Scripsit non multis abhinc annis (optime Patrone) et non impolit scripsit, vir omnibus optimarum literarum remis instructissimus, de doctorum grege non mal meritus, tuae dignitati familiaritatis nexu coniunctissims, clarissimum Cantabrigiensis academiae lumen, ge~ma, et gloria, Iohannes Caius, ad Conradum Gesnerum summum suum, hominem peritissimum, indagatorem rerum reconditarum sagacissimum, pulcherrimaque historiarum naturalium panoplia exornatu~, epitomen de canibus Britannicis non tam breuem qu‡m elegantem, et vtilem, epitomen inquam varijs variorum experimentorum argumentis concinnatam: in cuius titulum cu~ fort incidissem, et nouitate rei nonnihil delectarer, interpretationem Anglicam aggressus sum. Postquam vero finem penso imposuissem, repentina quaedam de opusculi dedicatione cogitatio oboriebatur, ta~demque post multas multarum rerum iactationes, beneficiorum tuorum (Ornatissime vir) vnica recordatio, instar rutilantis stellae, quae radiorum splendore quaslibet caliginosas teterrimae obliuionis nebulas dissipat, et memoriae serenitatem, plusqua~ solarem, inducit, mihi illuxit: nec no~ officij ratio quae funestissimis insensae fortunae fulminibus conquassata, lacerata & conuulsa, pen perierat, fractas vires multumque debilitatas colligebat, pristinum robur recuperauit, tandemque aliquando ex Lethea illa palude neruose emergebat, atque eluctata est. Qua~ voragine~ simulatque euaserat, sic effloruit, adeoque increuit, vt vnamquamque animi mei cellulain sui ditionem atque imperij amplitudinem raperet. Nune vero in contemplatione meritorum tuorum versari non desino, quorum magnitudinem nescio an tam tenui et leuidensi orationis filo possim circumscribere: Hoc, Aedepol, me non mediocriter mouet, non leuiter torquet, non languide pungit. Est praeterea alia causa quae mihi scrupulum inijcir, et quodammodo exulcerat, ingrati nempe animi suspicio a qua, tanquam ab aliqua Lernaea Hydra, pedibus (vt aiunt) Achilleis semper fugi, et tame~ valde pertimesco ne officij mora et procrastinatio (vt ita dicam) obscaenam securitatis labem nomini meo inurat, eoque magis expauesco quod peruulgatum illud atque decantatum poetae carmen memoriae occurrebat.

Dedecus est semper sumere nilque dare.

Sed (Ornatissime vir) quemadmodu~ metus illius mali me magnopore affligebat atque fodicabat, ita spes alterius boni, nempe humanitatis tuae, qua caeteris multis interuallis praeluxeris, erigit suffulcitque: Ea etiam spes alma et opima iubet et hortatur aliquod quale quale sit, officij specimen cum allacritate animi prodere. Hisce itaque persuasionibus victus me morigerum praebui, absolutamque de canibus Britannicis interpretatione~ Anglicam, tibi potissimum vtpote patrono singulari et vnico Maecenati dedicanda~ proosui: non quod tam ieiuno et exili munere immensum meritorum tuorum mare metiri machiner, non quod religiosas aures sacratasque, prophanae paginae explicatione obtundere cupiam, nec quod nugatorijs friuolisque narrationibus te delectari arbitrer cum in diuinioribus excercitationibus totus sis: sed potius (cedat sides dicto) quod insignis ille egregiusque liberalium artium, et praecipu medicae facultatis princeps (qui hoc opusculum contexuit) ita viguit dum vixerat adeoque inclaruit, vt haud scio (vt ingenu fatear quod sentio) an post funera parem sibi superstitem reliquerit. Deinde quod hunc libellum summo studio et industria elaboratum in transmarinas regiones miserat, ad hominem omni literarum genere, et praesertim occultaru~ rerum cognitione, quae intimis naturae visceribus et medullis insederat (O ingeniu~ niueo lapillo dignu~) cuius difficultates Laberyntheis anfractibus flexuo sisque recessibus impeditas perserutari & iuuestigare (deus bone, quam inge~s labor, quam infinitum opus,) excultum, Conradum Gesnerum scriberet, quae tantam gratiam conciliauit vt non solum amicissimo ofculo exciperet, sed etiam studiose lectitaret, accurat vteretur, inexhaustis denique viribus, tanquam perspicacissimus draco vellus aureum, et oculis plusquam aquilinis custodiret, Postremo que madmodum hanc epitomen a viro vere docto ad virum summa nominis celebritate decoratum scripam fuisse accepimus, ita eandem ipsam (pro titulo Britannico) Brita~nico sermone, licet ineleganti, vsitata & populari, ab esuriente Rhetore donatam, tuis (eruditissime vir) manibus commendo vt tuo sub patrocino in has at que illas regionis nostrae partes intrepide proficiscatur: obtestorque vt hunc libellum, humilem et obscuram inscriptionem gerentem, argumentum nouum et antehaec non auditum complectientem, ab omni tamen Sybaritica obscaenitate remotissimum, aequi bonique consulas.

Tuae dignitati deditissimus Abrahamus Flemingus.

To the well disposed Reader.

AS euery manifest effect procedeth fro~ som certain cause, so the penning of this present abridgement (gentle and courteous reader) issued from a speciall occasion. For Conradus Gesnerus, a man whiles he liued, of incomparable knowledge, and manyfold experience, being neuer satisfied with the swete sappe of vnderstanding, requested Iohannes Caius a profound clarke and a rauennous deuourer of learning (to his praise be it spoke~ though the language be somewhat homely) to write a breuiary or short treatise of such dogges as were ingendred within the borders of England: To the contentation of whose minde and the vtter accomplishement of whose desire, Caius spared no study, (for the acquaintance which was betwene them, as it was confirmed by continuaunce, and established on vnfainednes, so was it sealed with vertue and honesty) withdrew himself from no labour, repined at no paines, forsooke no trauaile, refused no indeuour, finally pretermitted no opportunity or circumstaunce which semed pertinent and requisite to the performance of this litle libell. In the whole discourse wherof, the booke, to consider the substaunce, being but a pamphlet or skantling, the argument not so fyne and affected, and yet the doctrine very profitable and necessarye, he vseth such a smoothe and comely style, and tyeth his inuention to such methodicall and orderly procedings, as the elegantnes and neatnesse of his Latine phrase, (being pure, perfect, and vnmingled) maketh the matter which of it selfe is very base and clubbishe, to appeare (shall I say tollerable) nay rather commendable and effectuall. The sundry sortes of Englishe dogges he discouereth so euidently, their natures he rippeth so apparantly, their manners he openeth so manifestly, their qualities he declareth so skilfully, their proportions he painteth out so perfectly, their colours he describeth so artificially, and knytteth all these in such shortnesse and breuity, that the mouth of th'aduersary must nedes confesse & giue sentence that commendation ought to be his rewarde, and praise his deserued pension. An ignoraunt man woulde neuer haue bene drawne into this opinion, to thincke that there had bene in England such variety & choise of dogges, in all respectes (not onely for name but also for qualitie) so diuerse and vnlike: But what cannot learning attaine? what cannot the kay of knowledge open? what cannot the lampe of vnderstanding lighten? what secretes cannot discretion detect? finally what cannot experience comprehend? what buge heapes of histories hath Gesnerus hourded in volumes of a large syze? Fishes in floudes, Cattell on lande, Byrdes in the ayre, how hath he sifted them by ther naturall differences? how closely and in how narrow a compasse hath he couched mighty and monstruous beasts, in bygnesse lyke mountaines, the bookes themselues being lesser then Molehilles. The lyfe of this man was not so great a restority of comfort, as his death was an vlcer or wound of sorrow: the losse of whom Caius lamented, not so much as he was his faithfull friende, as for that he was a famous Philosopher, and yet the former reason (being, in very dede, vehement & forceable) did stinge him with more griefe, then he peraduenture was willing to disclose. And though death be counted terrible for the time, and consequently vnhappy, yet Caius aduoucheth the death of Gesner most blessed, luckie, and fortunate, as in his Booke intituled, De libris proprijs, appeareth. But of these two Eagles sufficient is spoken as I suppose, and yet litle enough in consideration of their dignitie and worthines. Neuerthelesse litle or mickle, something or nothing, substaunce or shadow take all in good part, my meaning is by a fewe wordes to wynne credit to this worke, not so much for mine owne Englishe Translation as for the singuler commendation of them, challenged of dutie and desart. Wherfore gentle Reader I commit them to thy memorie, and their bookes to thy courteous censure. They were both learned men, and painefull practitioners in their professions, so much the more therfore are their workes worthy estimation, I would it were in me to aduaunce them as I wishe, the worst (and yet both, no doubt, excellent) hath deserued a monument of immortality. Well there is no more to be added but this, that as the translatio~ of this booke was attempted, finished, and published of goodwill (not onely to minister pleasure, as to affoord profit) so it is my desire and request that my labour therin employed may be acceptable, as I hope it shalbe to men of indifferent iudgement. As for such as shall snarr and snatch at the Englishe abridgement, and teare the Translatour, being absent, with the teeth of spightfull enuye, I conclude in breuity there eloquence is but currishe, if I serue in their meate with wrong sawce, ascribe it not to vnskilfulnesse in coquery, but to ignoraunce in their diet, for as the Poet sayeth.

Non satis est ars sola coquo, seruire palato:
Nanque coquus domini debet habere gulam:
It is not enough that a cooke vnderstand,
Except his Lordes stomack he holde in his hand.
To winde all in a watcheworde I saye no more. But doe well, and Farewell.
His and his Friendes, Abraham Fleming.
The first Section of this discourse.
The Preamble or entraunce, into this treatise.

I Wrote vnto you (well beloued friende Gesner) not many yeares past, a manifolde historie, contayning the diuers formes and figures of Beastes, Byrdes, and Fyshes, the sundry shapes of of plantes, and the fashions of Hearbes, &c.

I wrote moreouer, vnto you seuerally, a certayne abridgement of Dogges, which in your discourse on the fourmes of Beastes in the seconde order of mylde and tameable Beastes, where you make mencion of Scottishe Dogges, and in the wynding of your Letter written and directed to Doctour Turner, comprehending a Catalogue or rehersall of your bookes not yet extant, you promised to set forth in print, an openly to publishe in the face of the worlde among such your workes as are not yet come abroade to lyght and sight. But, because certaine circumstaunces were wanting in my breuiary of Englishe Dogges (as semed vnto mee) I stayed the publication of the same, making promise to sende another abroade, which myght be commytted to the handes, the eyes, the eares, the mindes, and the iudgements of the Readers. Wherefore that I myght perfourme that preciselye, which I promised solempnly, accomplishe my determination, and satisfy your expectacion: which art a man desirous and capeable of all kinde of knowledge, and very earnest to be acquained with all experimentes: I wyll expresse and declare in due order, the grand and generall kinde of Englishe Dogges, the difference of them, the vse, the propertyes, and the diuerse natures of the same, making a tripartite diuision in this sort and maner.

All Englishe Dogges be eyther of,
* A gentle kinde, seruing the game.
* A homely kind, apt for sundry necessary vses.
* A currishe kinde, mete for many toyes.

Of these thre sortes or kindes so meane I to intreate, that the first in the first place, the last in the last roome, and the myddle sort in the middle seate be handled. I cal the~ vniuersally all by the name of English dogges, as well because England only, as it hath in it English dogs, so it is not without Scottishe, as also for that we are more inclined and delighted with the noble game of hunting, for we Englishmen are adicted and giuen to that exercise, & painefull pastime of pleasure, as well for the plenty of fleshe which our Parkes and Forrests doe foster, as also for the oportunitie and conuenient leasure which we obtaine, both which, the Scottes want. Wherfore seing that the whole estate of kindly hunting consisteth principally,

In these two pointes,
* In chasing the beast that is in hunting
* In taking the byrde that is in fowleing

It is necessary and requisite to vnderstand, that there are two sortes of Dogges by whose meanes, the feates within specifyed are wrought, and these practyses of actiuitie cunningly and curiously compassed,

Two kindes of Dogges
* One which rouseth the beast and continueth the chase.
* Another which springeth the byrde and bewrayeth the flight by pursuite,

Both which kyndes are tearmed of the Latines by one common name that is, Canes Venatici, hunting dogges. But because we Englishe men make a difference betweene hunting and fowleling, for that they are called by these seuerall wordes, Venatio, & Aucupium, so they tearme the Dogges whom they vse in these sundry games by diuers names, as those which serue for the beast, are called Venatici, the other which are vsed for the fowle are called Aucupatorij,

The first kind called Venatici I deuide into fiue sortes,
* The first in perfect smelling excelleth.
* The second in quicke spying excelleth.
* The thirde in swiftnesse and quicknesse. excelleth.
* The fourth in smelling & nymblenesse. excelleth.
* The fifte in subtiltie and deceitfulnesse, excelleth.

Of the Dogge called a Harier, in Latine Leuerarius.

THat kinde of Dogge whom nature hath indued with the vertue of smelling, whose property it is to vse a lustines, a readines, and a couragiousnes in hunting, and draweth into his nostrells the ayre or sent of the beast pursued and followed, we call by this word Sagax, the Grecians by thys word of tracing or chasing by ye foote, or , of the nostrells, which be the instrumentes of smelling. We may knowe these kinde of Dogges by their long, large, and bagging lippes, by their hanging eares, reachyng downe both sydes of their chappes, and by the indifferent and measurable proportion of their making. This sort of Dogges we call Leuerarios Hariers, that I may comprise the whole nu~ber of them in certaine specialties, and apply to them their proper and peculier names, for so much as they cannot all be reduced and brought vnder one sorte, considering both the sundrye vses of them, and the difference of their seruice wherto they be appointed.

Some for
* The Hare Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Foxe Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Wolfe Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Harte Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Bucke Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Badger Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Otter Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Polcat Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Lobster Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Weasell Some for one thing and some for another.
* The Conny. &c. Some for one thing and some for another.

As for the Conny, whom we haue lastly set downe, we vse not to hunt, but rather to take it, somtime with the nette sometime with a ferret, and thus euery seuerall sort is notable and excellent in his naturall qualitie and appointed practise. Among these sundry sortes, there be some which are apt to hunt two diuers beasts, as the Foxe otherwhiles, and other whiles the Hare, but they hunt not with such towardnes and good lucke after them, as they doe that wherevnto nature hath formed and framed them, not onely in externall composition & making, but also in inward faculties and conditions, for they swarue oftentimes, and doo otherwise then they should.

Of the Dogge called a Terrar, in Latine Terrarius.

ANother sorte there is which hunteth the Foxe and the Badger or Greye onely, whom we call Terrars, because they (after the manner and custome of ferrets in searching for Connyes) crepe into the grounde, and by that meanes make afrayde, nyppe, and byte the Foxe and the Badger in

such sort, that eyther they teare them in peces with theyr teth beyng in the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out of their lurking angles, darke dongeons, and close caues, or at the least through co~ceaued feare, driue them out of their hollow harbours, in so much that they are compelled to prepare spedy slight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are otherwise taken and intrapped with snares and nettes layde ouer holes to the same purpose. But these be the least in that kynde called Sagax.

Of the Dogge called a Bloudhounde in Latine Sanguinarius.

THe greater sort which serue to hunt, hauing lippes of a large syze, & eares of no small lenght, doo, not onely chase the beast whiles it liueth, (as the other doo of whom mencion aboue is made) but beyng dead also by any maner of casualtie, make recourse to the place where it lyeth, hauing in this poynt an aured and infallible guyde, namely, the sent and sauour of the bloud sprinckled here and there on the ground. For whether the beast beyng wounded, doth notwithstanding enioye life, and escapeth the handes of the huntesman, or whether the said beast beyng slayne is conuayed enly out of the parcke (so that there be some signification of bloud shed) these Dogges with no lesse facilitie and easinesse, then auiditie and greedinesse can disclose and bewray the same by smelling, applying to their pursute, agilitie and nimblenesse, without tediousnesse, for which consideration, of a inguler specialtie they deserued to be called Sangumarij, bloud ound, And albeit peraduenture it may chaunce, (As whether it chaunceth shaldome or sometime I am ignorant) that a pece of fleshe e atily stolne and cunningly conuayed away with such prouisos and proceats, as thereby all appraunce of bloud is eyther preuented, excluded, or concealed, yet these kinde of dogges by a certaine direction of an inwarde assured notyce and priuy marke, pursue the dede dooers, through long lanes, crooked reaches, and weary wayes, without wandring awry out of the limites of the land wheron these desperate purloyners prepared their speedy passage. Yea, the natures of these Dogges is such, and so effectuall is their foresight, that they ca~ bewray, seperate, and pycke them out from among an infinite multitude and an innumerable company, crepe they neuer so farre into the thickest thronge, they will finde him out notwithstandyng he lye hidden in wylde woods, in close and ouergrowen groues, and lurcke in hollow holes apte to harbour such vngracious guestes. Moreouer, although they should passe ouer the water, thinking thereby to auoyde the pursute of the houndes, yet will not these Dogges giue ouer their attempt, but presuming to swym through the streame, perseuer in their pursute, and when they be arriued and gotten the further bancke, they hunt and downe, to and fro runne they, from place to place shift they, vntill they haue attained to that plot of grounde where they passed ouer. And this is their practise, if perdie they ca~not at ye first time smelling, finde out the way which the deede dooers tooke to escape. So at length get they that by arte, cunning, and diligent indeuour, which by fortune and lucke they cannot otherwyse ouercome. In so much as it seemeth worthely and wisely written by Aelianus in his sixte Booke, and xxvix. Chapter. to be as it were naturally distilled and powred into these kinde of Dogges. For they wyll not pause or breath from their pursute vntill such tyme as they be apprehended and taken which committed the facte. The owners of such houndes vse to kepe them in close and darke channells in the day time, and let them lose at liberty in the night season, to th'intent that they myght with more courage and boldnesse practise to follow the fellon in the euening and solitarie houres of darkenesse, when such yll disposed varlots are principally purposed to play theyr impudent pageants, & imprudent pranckes. These houndes (on whom this present portion of our treatise runneth) when they are to follow such fellowes as we haue before rehersed, vse not that liberty to raunge at wil, which they haue otherwise when they are in game, (except on necessary occasion wheron dependeth an vrgent and effectuall perswasion) when such purloys make spedy way in slight but beyng restrained and drwne backe from running at randon with the leasse, the ende whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded, and directed with such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote, or whether be ryde on horsebacke) as he himselfe in hart would wishe for the more easie apprehension of these venturous varlots. In the borders of England & Scotland, (the often and accustomed stealing of cattell so procuring) these kinde of Dogges are very much vsed and they are taught and trayned first of all to hunt cattell as well of the smaller as of the greater grouth and afterwardes (that qualitie relinquished and lefte) they are learned to pursue such pestilent persons as plant theyr pleasure in such practises of purloyning as we haue already declared. Of this kinde there is none that taketh the water naturally, except it please you so to suppose of them whych follow the Otter, which sometimes haunte the lande, and sometime vseth the water. And yet neuerthelesse all the kind of them boyling and broyling with gredy desire of the pray which by swymming passeth through ryuer and flood, plung amyds the water, and passe the streame with their pawes But this propertie procedeth from an earnest desire wherwith they be inflamed, rather then from any inclination issuyng from the ordinance and appoyntment of nature. And albeit some of this sort in English be called Brache, in Scottishe Rache, the cause hereof resteth in the she sex and not in the generall kinde. For we English men call bytches, belonging to the hunting kinde of Dogges, by the tearme aboue mentioned. To be short it is proper to the nature of honors, some to kepe silence in hunting vntill such tyme as there is offered. Othersome so as they smell out the place where the beast urckth, so bewray it immediatly by their importunate barcking, notwithstanding it be farre at many furlungs cowchyng close in his cabbyn. And these Dogges the younger they be, the more wantonly barke they, and the more liberally, yet, oftimes without necessitie, so that in them, by reason of theyr young yeares and want of practise, small certaintie is to be reposed. For continaunce of tyme, and experience in game, ministreth to these houndes not onely cunning in running, but also (as in the rest) an assured foresight what is to bee done, principally, being acquainted with their masters watch wordes, eyther in reuoking imboldening them to serue the game.

Of the Dogge called the Gasehounde, in Latine Agasaeus.

THis kinde of Dogge which pursueth by the eye, preuayleth little, or neuer a whit, by any benefite of the nose that is by smelling, but excelleth in perspicuitie and sharpenesse of sight altogether, by the vertue whereof, being singuler and notable, it hunteth the Foxe and in the Hare. Thys Dogge will hee and seperate any beast from among a great flocke or heade, and such a one will it take by election as is not lancke, leane and hollow, but well spred, smoothe, full, fatte, and round, it followes by the direction of the eyesight, which in dede is clere, constant, and not vncertaine, if a beast be wounded and gone all ay this Dogge eeketh after it by the stedfastnes of the eye, if it chaunce peraduenture to returne & be mingled with the residue of the flocke, this Dogge spyeth it out by the vertue of his eye, leauing the rest of the cattell vntouched, and after he hath set sure sight o~ it he seperateth it from among the company and hauing so done neuer ceaseth vntill he haue wearyed the Beast to death. Our countrey men call this dogge Agasaeum, A gasehounde because the beames of his sight are so stedfastly setled and vnmoueably fastened. These Dogges are much and vsually occupyed in the Northern partes of England more then in the Southern parts, & in caldy landes rather then in bushy and woody places, horsemen vse them more then footemen to th'intent that they might prouoke their horses to a swift galloppe (wherwith they are more delighted then with the pray it selfe) and that they myght accustome theyr horse to leape ouer hedges & ditches, without stoppe or stumble, without harme or hassard, without doubt or daunger, and so escape with safegard of lyfe. And to the ende that the ryders themselues when necessitie so constrained, and the feare of further mischiefe inforced, myght saue themselues vndamnifyed, and preuent each perilous tempest by preparing speedy flight, or else by swift pursute made on theyr enimyes, myght both ouertake them, encounter with them, and make a slaughter of them accordingly. But if it fortune so at any time that this Dogge take a wrong way, the master making some vsuall signe and familiar token, he returneth forthwith, and taketh the right and ready trace, beginning his chase a fresh, & with a cleare voyce, and a swift foote followeth the game with as much courage and nimblenesse as he he did at the first.

Of the Dogge called the Grehounde, in Latine Leporarius.

THere is another kinde of Dogge which for his incredible swiftnesse is called Leporarius a Grehounde, because the principall seruice of them dependeth and consisteth in starting and hunting the hare, which Dogges likewyse are indued with no lesse strength then lightnes in maintenance of the game, in seruing the chase, in taking the Bucke, the Harte, the Dowe, the Foxe, and other beastes of semblable kinde ordained for the game of hunting. But more or lesse, each one according to the measure and proportion of theyr desire, and as might and habilitie of theyr bodyes will permit and suffer. For it is a spare and bare kinde of Dogge, (of fleshe but not of bone) some are of a greater sorte, and some of a lesser, some are smooth skynned, & some are curled, the bigger therfore are appoynted to hunt the bigger beasts, & the smaller serue to hunt the smaller accordingly. The nature of these dogges I finde to be wonderful by ye testimoniall of histories. For, as Iohn Froisart the Historyographer in his 4. lib. reporteth. A Grehound of King Richard, the second yt wore the Crowne, and bare the Scepter of the Realme of England, neuer knowing any man, beside the kings person, whe~ Henry Duke of Lancaster came to the castle of Flinte to take King Richarde. The Dogge forsaking his former Lord & master came to Duke Henry, fawned on him with such resemblaunces of goodwyll and conceaued affection, as he fauoured King Richarde before: he followed the Duke, and vtterly left the King. So that by these manifest circumstances a man myght iudge this Dogge to haue bene lightened wyth the lampe of foreknowledge & vndersta~ding, touchyng his olde masters miseryes to come, and vnhappinesse nye at hand, which King Richarde himselfe euidently perceaued, accounting this deede of his Dogge a Prophecy of his ouerthrowe.

Of the Dogge called the Leuiner, or Lyemmer in Latine Lorarius.

ANother sort of dogges be there, in smelling singuler, and in swiftnesse incomparable. This is (as it were) a myddle kinde betwixt the Harier and the Grehounde, as well for his kinde, as for the frame of his body. And it is called in latine Leuinarius, a Leuitate, of lyghtnesse, and therefore may well be called a lyghthounde, it is also called by this worde Lorarius, a Loro, wherwith it is led. This Dogge for the excellency of his conditions, namely smelling and swift running, doth followe the game with more eagernes, and taketh the pray with a iolly quicknes.

Of the Dogge called a Tumbler, in Latine Vertagus.

THis sorte of Dogges, which compasseth all by craftes, fraudes, subtelties and deceiptes, we Englishe men call Tumblers, because in hunting they turne and tumble, winding their bodyes about in circle wise, and then fearcely and violently venturing o~ the beast, doth soddenly gripe it, at the very entrance and mouth of their receptacles, or closets before they can recouer meanes, to saue and succour themselues. This dogge vseth another craft and subteltie, namely, when he runneth into a warren, or fetteth a course about a connyburrough, he huntes not after them, he frayes them not by barcking, he makes no countenance or shadow of hatred against them, but dissembling friendship, and pretending fauour, passeth by with silence and quietnesse, marking and noting their holes diligently, wherein (I warrant you) he will not be ouershot nor deceaued. When he commeth to the place where Connyes be, of a certaintie, he cowcheth downe close with his belly the grou~d, Prouided alwayes by his skill and polisie, that ye the winde be neuer with him but against him in such an enterprise. And that the Connyes spie him not where he lurcketh. By which meanes he obtaineth the sent and sauour of the Connyes, carryed towardes him with the wind & the ayre either going to their holes, or co~ming out, eyther passing this way, or running that way, and so prouideth by his circumspection, that the selly simple Conny is debarred quite from his hole (which is the hauen of their hope and the harbour of their health) and fraudulently circumuented and taken, before they can get the aduantage of their hole. Thus hauing caught his pray he earryeth it sedily to his Master, wayting his Dogges returne in some conuenient lurcking corner. These Dogges are somewhat lesser then the houndes, and they be lancker & leaner, beside that they be somwhat prick eared. A man that shall marke the forme and fashion of their bodyes, may well call them mungrell Grehoundes if they were somwhat bigger. But notwithstanding they counteruaile not the Grehound in greatnes, yet will he take in one dayes space as many Connyes as shall arise to as bigge a burthen, and as heauy a loade as a horse can carry, for deceipt and guile is the instrument wherby he maketh this spoyle, which pernicious properties supply the places of more commendable qualities.

Of the Dogge called the theeuishe Dogge in Latine Canis furax.

THe like to that whom we haue rehearsed, is the theuishe Dogge, which at the mandate and bydding of his master flereth and leereth abroade in the night, hunting Connyes by the ayre, which is leuened with their sauour and conueyed to the sense of smelling by the meanes of the winde blowing towardes him. During all which space of his hunting he will not barcke, least he shoulde bee preiudiciall to his owne aduantage. And thus watcheth and snatcheth in course as many Connyes as his Master will suffer him, and beareth them to his Masters standing. The farmers of the countrey and landishe dwellers, call this kinde of Dogge a nyght curre, because he hunteth in the darke. But let thus much seeme sufficient for Dogges which serue the game and disport of hunting.

A Diall pertaining to the first Section.

Dogges seruing ye pastime of hunting beastes. are diuided into

* Hariers In Latine called Venatici.
* Terrars In Latine called Venatici.
* Bloudhounds In Latine called Venatici.
* Gasehounds In Latine called Venatici.
* Grehounds In Latine called Venatici.
* Leuiners or Lyemmers In Latine called Venatici.
* Tumblers In Latine called Venatici.
* Stealers. In Latine called Venatici.

The seconde Section of this discourse.

Of gentle Dogges seruing the hauke, and first of the Spaniell, called in Latine Hispaniolus.

SVch Dogges as serue for fowling, I thinke conuenient and requisite to place in this seconde Section of this treatise. These are also to bee reckoned and accounted in the number of the dogges which come of a gentle kind, and of those which serue for fowling.

There be two sortes.
* The first findeth game on the land.
* The other findeth game on the water.

Such as delight on the land, play their partes, eyther by swiftnesse of foote, or by often questing, to search out and to spring the byrde for further hope of aduauntage, or else by some secrete signe and priuy token bewray the place where they fall.

* The first kinde of such serue The Hauke,
* The seconde, The net, or, traine,

The first kinde haue no peculier names assigned vnto them, saue onely that they be denominated after the byrde which by naturall appointment he is alotted to take, for the which consideration.

Some be called Dogges,
* For the Falcon and such like,
* The Phesant and such like,
* The Partridge and such like,

The common sort of people call them by one generall word, namely Spaniells. As though these kinde of Dogges came originally and first of all out of Spaine. The most part of their skynnes are white, and if they be marcked with any spottes, they are commonly red, and somewhat great therewithall, the heares not growing in such thicknesse but that the mixture of them maye easely be perceaued. Othersome of them be reddishe and blackishe, but of that sorte there be but a very few. There is also at this day among vs a newe kinde of dogge brought out of Fraunce (for we Englishe men are maruailous gredy gaping gluttons after nouelties, and couetous coruorauntes of things that be seldom, rare, straunge, and hard to get.) And they bee speckled all ouer with white and black, which mingled colours incline to a marble blewe, which bewtifyeth their skinnes and affoordeth a semely show of comlynesse. These are called French dogges as is aboue declared already.

The Dogge called the Setter, in Latine Index.

ANother sort of Dogges be there, seruiceable for fowling, making no noise either with foote or with tounge, whiles they followe the game. These attend diligently on theyr Master and frame their conditions to such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it shall please him to exhibite and make, either going forward, drawing backeward, inclining to the right hand, or yealding toward the lest, (In making mencion of fowles, my meaning is of the Partridge & the Quaile) when he hath founde the byrde, he kepeth sure and fast silence, he stayeth his steppes and wil procede no further, and with a close, couert, watching eye, layeth his belly to the grounde and so crepeth forward like a worme. When he approcheth nere to the place where the birde is, he layes him downe, and with a marcke of his pawes betrayeth the place of the byrdes last abode, whereby it is supposed that this kinde of dogge is called Index, Setter, being in dede a name most consonant and agreable to his quality. The place being knowne by the meanes of the dogge, the fowler immediatly openeth and spreedeth his net, intending to take them, which being done the dogge at the accustomed becke or vsuall signe of his Master ryseth by and by, and draweth nerer to the fowle that by his presence they might be the authors of their owne insnaring, and be ready intangled in the prepared net, which conning and artificiall indeuour in a dogge (being a creature domesticall or housholde seruaunt brought at home with offalls of the trencher & fragments of victualls,) is not much so be maruailed at, seing that a Hare (being a wilde and skippishe beast) was sene in England to the astonishment of the beholders, in the yeare of our Lorde God, 1564. not onely dauncing in measure, but playing with his former feete pon a tabberet, and obseruing iust number of strokes (as a practicioner in that arte) besides that nipping & pinching a dogge with his teth and clawes, & cruelly thumping him with ye force of his feete. This is no trumpery tale, nor trifling toye (as I imagine) and therefore not vnworthy to bee reported, for I recken it a requitall of my trauaile, not to drowne in the seas of silence any speciall thing, wherin the prouidence and effectuall working of nature is to be pondered.

Of the Dogge called the water Spaniell, or finder in Latine Aquaticus su Inquisitor.

THat kinde of Dogge whose seruice is required in fowling on the water, partly through a naturall towardnesse, and partly by diligent teaching, is indued with that property. This sort is somewhat bigge, and of a measurable greatnesse, hauing long, rough, and curled heare, not obtayned by extraordinary trades, but giuen by natures appointment, yet neuerthelesse (friend Gesner) I haue described and set him out in this maner, namely powlde and notted from the shoulders to the hinder most legges, and to the end of his tayle, which I did for vse and customs cause, that beyng as it were made somewhat bare and naked, by shearing of such superfluitie of heare, they might atchiue the more lightnesse, and swiftnesse, and be lesse hindered in swymming, so troublesome and needelesse a burthen being shaken of. This kinde of dogge is properly called, Aquaticus, a water spaniel because he frequenteth and hath vsuall recourse to the water where all his game & exercise lyeth, namely waterfowles, which are taken by the helpe & seruice of them, in their kind. And principally duckes and drakes, wheron he is lykewise named a dogge for the ducke, because in that quallitie he is excellent. With those dogges also we fetche out of the water such fowle as he stounge to death by any venemous worme, we vse them also to bring vs our boultes & arrowes out of the water, (missing our marcke) wherat we directed our leuell, which otherwise we should hardly recouer, and oftentimes they restore to vs our shaftes which we thought neuer to se, touche or handle againe, after they were lost, for which circumstaunces they are called Inquisitores, searchers, and finders. Although the ducke other whiles notably deceaueth both the dogge and the master, by dyuing vnder the water, and also by naturall subtilty, for if any man shall approche to the place where they builde, brede, and syt, the hennes go out of their neastes, offering themselues voluntarily to the ha~ds, as it were, of such as draw nie their neasts. And a certaine weaknesse of their winges pretended, and infirmitie of their fete dissembled, they go so slowely and so leasurely, that to a mans thinking it were no masteryes to take them. By which deceiptfull tricke they doe as it were entyse and allure men to follow them, till they be drawne a long distaunce from theyr neastes, which being compassed by their prouident conning, or conning prouidence, they cut of all inconueniences which might growe of their returne, by vsing many carefull and curious caueates, least theyr often haunting bewray ye place where the young ducklings be hatched. Great therfore is theyr desire, & earnest is theyr study to take hede, not only to theyr broode but also to themselues. For when they haue an ynckling that they are espied they hide themselues vnder turfes or sedges, wherwith they couer and shrowde themselues so closely and so craftely, that (notwithstanding the place where they lurcke be found and perfectly perceaued) there they will harbour without harme, except the water spaniell by quicke smelling discouer theyr deceiptes.

Of the Dogge called the Fishers, in Latine Canis Piscator.

THe Dogge called the fisher, wherof Hector Boethus writeth, which seketh for fishe by smelling among rockes & stones, assuredly I knowe none of that kinde in England, neither haue I receaued by reporte that there is any suche, albeit I haue bene diligent & busie in demaunding the question as well of fishermen, as also of huntesmen in that behalfe being carefull and earnest to learne and vnderstand of them if any such were, except you holde opinion that the beauer or Otter is a fishe (as many haue beleued) & according to their beliefe affirmed, and as the birde Pupine, is thought to be a fishe and so accounted. But that kinde of dogge which followeth the fishe to apprehend and take it (if there bee any of that disposition and property) whether they do this for the game of hunting, or for the heate of hunger, as other Dogges do which rather then they wil be famished for want of foode, couet the carckases of carrion and putrifyed fleshe. When I am fully resolued and disburthened of this doubt I wil send you certificate in writing. In the meane season I am not ignorant of that both. Aelianus, and Aelius, call the Beauer a water dogge, or a dogge fishe, I know likewise thus much more, that the Beauer doth participate this propertie with the dogge, namely, that when fishes be scarse they leaue the water and raunge and downe the lande, making an insatiable slaughter of young lambes vntil theyr paunches be replenished, and whe~ they haue fed themselues full of fleshe, then returne they to the water, from whence they came. But albeit so much be graunted that this Beauer is a dogge, yet it is to be noted that we recken it not in the beadrowe of Englishe dogges as we haue done the rest. The sea Calfe, in like maner, which our country me~ for brenitie sake call a Sele, other more largely name a Sea Vele, maketh a spoyle of fishes betwene rockes and banckes, but it is not accounted in the catalogue or nu~ber of our Englishe dogges, notwithstanding we call it by the name of a Sea dogge or a sea Calfe. And thus much for our dogges of the second sort called in Latine Aucupatorij, seruing to take fowle either by land or water.

A Diall pertaining to the second Section.

Dogges seruing the disport of fowling are diuided into

* Land spaniele Setters called in latine Canes Aucupatorij
* Water spaniels or finders called in latine Canes Aucupatorij

The fisher is not of their number, but seuerall.

The thirde Section of this abridgement.

NOwe followeth in due order and conuenient place our Englishe Dogges of the thirde gentle kinde, what they are called to what vse they serue, and what sort of people plant their pleasure in the~, which because they nede no curious canuastings and nye syfting, wee meane to bee so much the briefer.

Of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges called the Spaniel gentle or the comforter, in Latine Melitaeus or Fotor.

THere is, besides those which we haue already deliuered, another sort of gentle dogges in this our Englishe soyle but exempted from the order of the residue, the Dogges of this kinde doth Callimachus call Melitaeos, of the Iseland Melita, in the sea of Sicily, (which at this day is named Malta, an Iseland in deede, famous and renomed, with couragious aud puisaunt souldiours valliauntly lighting vnder the banner of Christ their vnconquerable captain where, this kind of dogges had their principall beginning.

These dogges are litle, prety, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the delicatenesse of daintie dames, and wanton womens wills, instrumentes of folly for them to play and dally withall, to trye away the treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from more commendable exercises, and to content their corrupted concupiscences with vaine disport (A selly shift to shunne yrcksome ydlnesse.) These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they prouoke, as more mete play fellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in their bosoms, to kepe company withal in their chambers, to succour with slepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at bourde, to lay in their lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good reason it should be so, for coursnesse with fynenesse hath no fellowship, but featnesse with neatenesse hath neighbourhood enough. That plausible prouerbe verified on a Tyraunt, namely that he loued his sowe better then his sonne, may well be applyed to these kinde of people who delight more in dogges that are depriued of all possibility of reason, then they doe in children that be capeable of wisedome and iudgement. But this abuse peraduenture raigneth where there hath bene long lacke of issue, or elsewhere barrennes is the best blossome of bewty.

The vertue which remaineth in the Spainell gentle otherwise called the comforter.

NOtwithstanding many make much of those pretty puppies called Spaniels gentle, yet if the question were demaunded what propertie in them they saye, which shoulde make them so acceptable and precious in their sight, I doubt their aunswere would be long a coyning. But seeing it was our intent to trauaile in this treatise, so that ye reader might reape some benefite by his reading, we will communicate vnto you such coniectures as are grounded on reason. And though some suppose that such dogges are fyt for no seruice, I dare say, by their leaues, they be in a wrong boxe. Among all other qualities therfore of nature, which be knowne (for some conditions are couered with continuall and thicke clouds, that the eye of our capacities can not pearse through the~) we find that these litle dogs are good to asswage the sicknesse of the stomacke being oftentimes thervnto applyed as a plaster preseruatiue, or borne in the bosom of the diseased and weake person, which effect is performed by theyr moderate heate. Moreouer the disease and sicknesse chaungeth his place and entreth (though it be not precisely marcked) into the dogge, which to be no vntruth, experience can testify, for these kinde of dogges sometimes fall sicke, and somtime die, without any harme outwardly inforced, which is an argument that the disease of the gentleman, or gentlewoman or owner whatsoeuer, entreth into the dogge by the operation of heate intermingled and infected. And thus haue I hetherto handled dogges of a gentle kinde whom I haue comprehended in a triple diuisio~. Now it remaineth that I annex in due order such dogges as be of a more homely kinde.

A Diall pertaining to the thirde Section.

In the third section is co~tained one kind of dog which is called the Spaniell gentle or the co~forter, It is also called

* A chamber co~panion, generally called Canie delicatus.
* A pleasaunt play fellow, generally called Canie delicatus.
* A pretty worme, generally called Canie delicatus.

The fourth Section of this discourse.

Dogges of a course kind seruing for many necessary vses called in Latine Canes rustici, and first of the shepherds dogge called in Latine Canis Pastoralis.

Dogges of the courser sort are

These two are the principall.
* The shepherds dogge
* The mastiue or Bandogge.

THe first kinde, namely the shepherds hounde is very necessarye and profitable for the auoyding of harmes and inconueniences which may come to men by the meanes of beastes. The second sort serue to succour against the snares and attemptes of mischiefous men. Our shepherdes dogge is not huge, vaste, and bigge, but of an indifferent stature and growth, because it hath not to deale with the bloudthyrsty wolf, sythence there be none in England, which happy and fortunate benefite is to be ascribed to the puisaunt Prince Edgar, who to thintent yt the whole countrey myght be euacuated and quite cleered from wolfes, charged & commaunded the welsheme~ (who were pestered with these butcherly beastes aboue measure) to paye him yearely tribute which was nte the wisedome of the King) thre hundred Wolfes. Some there be which write that Ludwall Prince of Wales paide yerely to King Edgar three hundred wolfes in the name of an exaction (as we haue sayd before.) And that by the meanes hereof, within the compasse and tearme of foure yeares, none of those noysome, and pestilent Beastes were left in the coastes of England and Wales. This Edgar wore the Crowne royall, and bare the Scepter imperiall of this kingdome, about the yeere of our Lorde, nyne hundred fifty, nyne. Synce which time we rede that no Wolfe hath bene seene in England, bred within the bounds and borders of this countrey, mary there haue bene diuers brought ouer from beyonde the seas, for gredynesse of gaine and to make money, for gasing and gaping, staring, and standing to se them, being a straunge beast, rare, and seldom sene in England. But to returne to our shepherds dogge. This dogge either at the hearing of his masters voyce, or at the wagging and whisteling in his fist, or at his shrill and horse hissing bringeth the wandring weathers and straying shepe, into the selfe same place where his masters will and wishe is to haue the~, wherby the shepherd reapeth this benefite, namely, that with litle labour and no toyle or mouing of his fete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his owne desire, either to haue them go forward, or to stand still, or to drawe backward, or to turne this way, or to take that way. For it is not in Englande, as it is in Fraunce, as it is in Flaunders, as it is in Syria, as it is in Tartaria, where the shepe follow the shepherd, for here in our country the shepherd followeth the sheepe. And somtimes the straying shepe, when no dogge runneth before them, nor goeth about & beside them, gather themselues together in a flocke, when they here the shepherd whistle in his fist, for feare of the Dogge (as I imagine) remembring this (if vnreasonable creatures may be reported to haue memory) that the Dogge commonly runneth out at his masters warrant which is his whistle. This haue we oftentimes diligently marcked in taking our iourney from towne to towne, when we haue hard a shepherd whistle we haue rayned in our horse and stoode styll a space, to see the proofe and triall of this matter. Furthermore with this dogge doth the shepherd take sheepe for ye slaughter, and to be healed if they be sicke, no hurt or harme in the world done to the simple creature.

Of the mastiue or Bandogge called in Latine Vllaticus or Cathenarius.

THis kinde of Dogge called a masyue or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly, and eager, of a heuy and hurthenous body, and therfore but of litle swiftnesse, terrible, and frightfull to beholde, and more fearce and fell then any Arcadian curre (notwithsta~ding they are sayd to haue their generation of the violent Lyon.) They are called Vllatici, because they are appoynted to watche and kepe farme places and cou~try cotages sequestred from commo~ recourse, and not abutting on other houses by reason of distaunce, when there is any feare conceaued of thefes, robbers, spoylers, and nightwanderers. They are seruiceable against the Foxe and the Badger, to driue wilde and tame swyne out of Medowes, pastures, glebelandes and places planted with fruite, to bayte and take the bull by the eare, when occasion so requireth. One dogge or two at the vttermost, sufficient for that purpose be the bull neuer so monsterous, neuer so fearce, neuer so furious, neuer so searne, neuer so vntameable. For it is a kinde of dogge capeable of courage, violent and valiaunt, striking could feae into the harts of men, but standing in feare of no man, in so much that no weapons will make him shrincke, nor abridge his boldnes. Our Englishe men (to thintent that theyr dogges might be the more fell and feare) assist nature with arte, vse, and custome, for they teach theyr dogges to baite the Beare, to baite the Bull and other such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appointing an ouerseer of the game) without any collar to defend theyr throtes, and oftentimes they traine them in fighting and wrestling with a man hauing for the safegarde of his lyfe, eyther a Pikestaffe, a clubbe, or a sworde and by vsing them to uch exercises as these, thoy dogges become more sturdy and strong. The force which is in them surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde which they take with their teth excedeth all credit, three of them against a Beare, fowre against a Lyon are sufficient, both to try masteryes with them and vtterly to ouermatch them. Which thing Henry the seuenth of that name, King of England (a Prince both politique & warlke) perceauing on a certaine time (as the report runneth) commaunded all such dogges (how many soeuer they were in number) should be hanged, beyng deepely displeased, and conceauing great disdaine, that an yll fauoured rascall curre should with such violent villany, assault the valiaunt Lyon king of all beastes. An example for all subiectes worthy remembraunce, to admonishe them that it is no aduantage to them to rebell against ye regiment of their ruler, but to kepe them within the limits of Loyaltie. I rede an history aunswerable to this of the selso same Henry, who hauing a notable and an excellent fayre Falcon, it fortuned that the kings Falconrs, in the presence and hearing of his grace, highly commended his Maiesties Falcon, saying, that it feared not to intermeddle with an Eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so mighty, which when the King harde, he charged that the Falcon should be killed without delay, for the selfe same reason (as it may seeme) which was rehersed in the co~clusion of the former history concerning the same king. This dogge is called, in like maner, Cathenarius, a Cathena, of the chaine wherwith he is tyed at the gates, in ye day time, least beyng lose he should doe much mischiefe and yet might giue occasion of feare and terror by his bigge barcking. And albeit Cicero in his oration had Pro. S. Ross. be of this opinion, that such Dogges as barcke in the broade day light shoulde haue their legges broken, yet our countrymen, on this side the seas for their carelessnes of lyfe setting all at cinque and sice, are of a contrary iudgement. For thee fes roge & down in euery corner, no place is free from them, no not ye princes palla time they practise pilfering, picking open robbing, and priuy stealing, and what legerdemane lacke they not fearing the shamefull and horrible death of hanging. The cause of which inconuenience doth not onely ihe from ripping neede & wringing want, for all ye steale, are not pinche with puerty but som steale so maintaine their excessiue and prodigall expences in apparell, their lewdnes of lyfe, their hautines of hart, theyr wantonnes of maners, theyr wilfull ydlenes, their ambitious brauery, and the pryde of the sawcy Salacones vaine glorious and arrogant in behauiour, whose delight dependeth wholly to mount nimbly on horsebacke, to make them leape lustely, spring and praunce, galloppe and amble, to runne a race, to wynde in compasse, and so forthe, liuing all together on the fatnesse of the spoyle. Othersom therbe which steale, being therto prouoked by penury & nede, like masterless me~ applying themselues to no honest trade, but raunging and downe impudently begging, and complayning of bodily weakenesse where is no want of abilitie. But valiaunt Valentine th'emperour, by holsome lawes prouided that suche as hauing no corporall , solde themselues to begging, pleded pouerty wyth pretended infirmitie, & leaked their ydle and slouthfull life with colourable shifts and cloudy cossning, should be a perpetuall slaue and drudge to him, by whom their impudent ydlenes was bewrayed, and layde against them in publique place, least the insufferable slouthfallnes of such vagabondes should be urtherous to the people, or being so hatefull and odious, should growe into an example. Alfredus likewise in the gouernment of his common wealth, procured such increase of credite to iustice and right dealing by his prudent actes and statutes, that if a ma~ trauailing by the hygh way of the countrey vnder his dominion, chaunced to lose a budget full of gold, or his capcase fased with things of great value, late in the euening, he should finde it where he lost it, safe, sound, and vntouched the next morning, yea (which is a wonder) at any time for a whole monethes space if he sought for it, as Ingulphus Croyladensis in his History recordeth. But in this our vnhappy age, in these (I say) our deuelishe dayes nothing can scape the clawes of the spoyler, though it be kept neuer so sure within the house, albeit the doores be lockt and boulted round about. This dogge in like ma~ner of Grecians is called .

Of the latinists Canis Cultos, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.

Borrowing his name of his seruire, for he doth not onely keepe farmers houses, but also merchaunts maisons, wherin great wealth, riches, substaunce, and costly stuffe is reposed. And therfore were certaine dogges founde and maintained at the common costes and charges of the Citizens of Rome in the place called Capitolium, to giue warning of theefes comming. This kind of dogge, is also called,

In latine Canis Laniarius in Englishe the Butchers Dogge.

So called for the necessity of his vse, for his seruice affoordeth great benefite to the Butcher as well in following as in taking his cattell when nede constraineth, vrgeth, and requireth. This kinde of dogge is likewise called,

In latine Molossicus or Molossus.

After the name of a countrey in Epirus called Molossia, which harboureth many stoute, stronge, and sturdy Dogges of this sort, for the dogges of that countrey are good in dede, or else their is no trust to be had in the testimonie of writers. This dogge is also called,

In latine Canis Mandatarius a Dogge messinger or Carrier.

Upon substanciall consideration, because at his masters voyce and commaundement, he carrieth letters from place to place, wrapped cunningly in his lether collar, fastened therto, or sowed close therin, who, least he should be hindered in his passage vseth these helpes very skilfully, namely resistaunce in fighting if he be not ouermatched, or else swiftnesse & readinesse in running away, if he be vnable to buckle with the dogge that would faine haue a snatchat his skinne. This kinde of dogge is likewise called,

In latine Canis Lunaris, in Englishe the Mooner.

Because he doth nothing else but watch and warde at an ynche, wasting the wearisome night season without slombering or sleeping, bawing & wawing at the Moone (that I may vse the word of Nonius) a qualitie in mine opinion straunge to consider. This kinde of dogge is also called.

In latine Aquarius in Englishe a water drawer.

And these be of the greater and the waighter sort drawing water out of wells and deepe pites, by a wheele which they turne rounde about by the mouing of their burthenous bodies. This kinde of dogge is called in like maner.

Canis Sarcinarius in Latine, and may aptly be englished a Tynckers Curre.

Because with marueilous pacience they beare bigge budgettes fraught with Tinckers tooles, and mettall meete to mend kettels, porrige pottes, skellets, and chafers, and other such like trumpery requisite for their occupacion and loytering trade, easing him of a great burthen which otherwise he himselfe should carry on his shoulders, which condition hath challenged vnto them the foresaid name. Besides the qualities which we haue already recounted, this kind of dogges hath this principall property ingrafted in them, that they loue their mastrs liberally, and hate straungers despightfully, wheron it followeth that they are to their masters, in traueling a singuler safgard, defending them forceably from the inuasion of villons and theefes, preseruing their lyfes from losse, and their health from hassard, theyr fleshe from hacking and hewing with such like desperate daungers. For which consideration they are meritoriously tearmed.

In Latine Canes defensores defending dogges in our mother tounge.

If it chaunce that the master be oppressed, either by a multitude, or by the greater violence & so be beaten downe that he lye groueling on the grounde, (it is proued true by experience) that this Dogge forsaketh not his master, no not when he is starcke deade: But induring the foree of famishment and the outragious tempestes of the weather, most vigilantly watcheth and carefully keepeth the deade carkasse many dayes, indeuouring, furthermore, to kil the murtherer of his master, if he may get any aduantage. Or else by barcking, by howling, by furious iarring, snarring, and such like meanes betrayeth the malefactour as desirous to haue the death of his aforesayde Master rigorouslye reuenged. And example hereof fortuned within the compasse of my memory. The Dogge of a certaine wayefaring man trauailing from the Citie of London directly to the Towne of Kingstone (most famous and renowned by reason of the triumphant coronation of eight seuerall Kings) passing ouer a good portion of his iourney was assaulted and set on by certaine confederate theefes laying in waight for the spoyle in Comeparcke, a perillous bottom, compassed about wyth woddes to well knowne for the manyfolde murders & mischefeous robberies theyr committed. Into whose handes this passinger chaunced to fall, so that his ill lucke cost him the price of his lyfe. And that Dogge whose yer was Englishe, (which Blondus registreth to haue bene within the banckes of his reme~brance) manifestly perceauyng that his Master was murthered this chaunced not farre from Paris) by the handes of one which was a suiter to the same woma~, whom he was a wooer vnto, dyd both bewraye the bloudy butcher, and attempted to teare out the villons throate if he had not sought meanes to auoyde the reuenging rage of the Dogge. In fyers also which fortune in the silence and dead time of the night, or in stormy weather of the sayde season, the older dogges, barcke, ball, howle, and yell (yea notwithstandyng they be roughly rated) neyther will they stay their tounges till the housholde seruauntes, awake, ryse, searche, and se the burning of the fyre, which beyng perceaued they vse voluntary silence, and cease from yolping. This hath bene, and is founde true by tryall, in sundry partes of England. There was no faynting faith in that Dogge, which when his Master by a mischaunce in hunting stumbled and fell toppling downe a depe dytche beyng vnable to recouer of himselfe, the Dogge signifying his masters mishappe, reskue came, and he was hayled by a rope, whom the Dogge seeyng almost drawne to the edge of the dytche, chrefully saluted, leaping and skipping on his master as though he woulde haue imbraced hym, beyng glad of his presence, whose longer absence he was lothe to lacke. Some Dogges there be, which will not suffer fyery coales to lye skattered about the hearthe, but with their pawes wil rake the burnyng coales, musyng and studying fyrst with themselues howe it myght conueniently be done. And if so be that the coales cast to great a heate then will they buyry them in ashes and so remoue them forwarde to a fyt place wyth theyr noses. Other Dogges be there which exequute the office of a Farmer in the nyghte tyme. For when his master goeth to bedde to take his naturall sleepe. And when,

A hundred barres of brasse aud yron boltes,
Make all things safe from startes and from reuoltes.
VVhen Ianus keepes the gate with Argos eye,
That daungers none approch, ne mischiefes nye.

As Virgill vaunteth in his verses, Then if his master byddeth him go abroade, he lingereth not, but raungeth ouer all his lands lying there about, more diligently, I wys, then any farmer himselfe. And if he finde any thing their that is straunge and pertaining to other persons besides his master, whether it be man, woman, or beast, he driueth them out of the ground, not medling with any thing which doth belong to the possession and vse of his master. But how much faythfulnes, so much diuersitie there is in their natures,

For there be some,
* Which barcke only with free and open throate but will not bite,
* Which doe both barcke and byte,
* Which bite bitterly before they barcke,

The first are not greatly to be feared, because they themselues are fearefull, and fearefull dogges (as the prouerbe importeth) barcke most vehemently.

The second are daungerous, it is wisedome to take hede of them because they sounde, as it were, an Alarum of an afterclappe, and these dogges must not be ouer much moued or prouoked, for then they take on outragiously as if they were madde, watching to set the print of their teeth in the fleshe. And these kinde of dogges are fearce and eager by nature.

The thirde are deadly, for they flye on a man, without vtteraunce of voyce, snatch at him, and catche him by the throate, and most cruelly byte out colloppes of fleashe. Feare these kind of Curres, (if thou be wise and circumspect about thine owne safetie) for they bee stoute and stubberne dogges, and set on a man at a sodden vnwares. By these signes and tokens, by these notes and argumentes our men discerne the cowardly curre from the couragious dogge the bolde from the fearefull, the butcherly from the gentle and tractable. Moreouer they coniecture that a whelpe of an yll kinde is not worthe the keping and that no dogge can serue the sundry vses of men so aptly and so conueniently as this sort of whom we haue so largely written already. For if any be disposed to drawe the aboue named seruices into a table, what ma~ more clearely, and with more vehemency of voyce giueth warning eyther of a wastefull beast, or of a spoiling thefe then this? who by his barcking (as good as a burning beacon) fore showeth hassards at hand? what maner of beast stronger? what seruau~t to his master more louing? what companion more trustie? what watchman more vigilant? what reuenger more constant? what messinger more speedie? what water bearer more painefull? Finally what packhorse more patient? And thus much concerning English Dogges, first of the gentle kinde, secondly of the courser kinde. Nowe it remaineth that we deliuer vnto you the Dogges of a mungrell or currishe kinde, and then will wee perfourme our taske.

A Diall pertaining to the fourth Section.

Dogs comprehended in ye fourth section are these

* The shepherds dogge
* The Mastiue or Bandogge

which hath sundry names diriued fro~ sundry circu~stances as

* The keper or watch man called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The butchers dogge called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The messinger or carrier called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The Mooner called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The water drawer called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The Tinckers curr called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The fencer, called in Latine Canes Rustici.

The fifth Section of this treatise.

Containing Curres of the mungrell and rascall sort and first of the Dogge called in Latine, Admonitor, and of vs in Englishe VVappe or VVarner.

OF such dogges as keepe not their kinde, of such as are mingled out of sundry sortes not imitating the conditions of some one certaine spice, because they rese~ble no notable shape, nor exercise any worthy property of the true perfect and gentle kind, it is not necessarye that I write any more of them, but to banishe them as vnprofitable implements, out of the boundes of my Booke, vnprofitable I say for any vse that is commendable, except to intertaine strau~gers with their bareking in the day time, giuyng warnyng to them of the house, that such & such be newly come, whereon we call them admonishing Dogges, because in that point they performe theyr office.

Of the Dogge called Turnespete in Latine Veruuersator.

THere is comprehended, vnder the curres of the coursest kinde, a certaine dogge in kytchen eruice excellent. For whe~ any meate is to be roasted they go into a wheele which they turning rounde about with the waight of their bodies, so diligently looke to their businesse, that no drudge nor skullion can doe the feate more cunningly. Whom the popular sort hereon call Turnespets, being the last of all those which we haue first mencioned.

Of the Dogge called the Daunser, in Latine Saltator or Tympanista.

THere be also dogges among vs of a mungrell kind which are taught and exercised to daunce in measure at the musicall sounde of an instrument, as, at the iust stroke of the drombe, at the sweete accent of the Cyterne, & tuned strings of the harmonious Harpe showing many pretty trickes by the gesture of their bodies. As to stand bolte right, to lye flat on the grounde, to turne rounde as a ringe holding their tailes in their teth, to begge for theyr meate, and sundry such properties, which they learne of theyr vagabundicall masters, whose instrumentes they are to gather gaine withall in Citie, Country, Towne, and Uillage. As some which carry olde apes on their shoulders in coloured iackets to moue men to laughter for a litle lucre.

Of other Dogges, a short conclusion, wonderfully ingendred within the coastes of this country.

Thre sortes of them,

* The first bred of a bytch and a wolfe, In Latine Lyciscus.
* The second of a bytche and a foxe, In Latine Lacaena.
* The third of a beare and a bandogge, In Latine Vrcanus.

OF the first we haue none naturally bred within the borders of England. The reason is for the want of wolfes, without whom no such kinde of Dogge can be ingendred. Againe it is deliuered vnto the in this discourse, how and by what meanes, by whose benefite, and within what circuite of tyme, this country was cleerely discharged of rauenyng wolfes, and none at all left, no, not to the least number, or the beginnyng of a number, which is an Vnari.

Of the second sort we are not vtterly voyde of some, because this our Englishe soyle is not free from foxes, (for in dede we are not without a multitude of them in so much as diuerse keepe, foster, and feede them in their houses among their houndes and dogges, eyther for some maladie of mind, or for some sickenesse of body,) which peraduenture the sauour of that subtill beast would eyther mitigate or expell.

The thirde kinde which is bred of a Beare and a Bandogge we want not heare in England, (A straunge & wonderfull effect, that cruell enimyes should enter into ye worke of copulation & bring forth so sauage a curre.) Undoubtedly it is euen so as we haue reported, for the fyery heate of theyr fleshe, or rather the pricking thorne, or most of all, the tyckling lust of lechery, beareth such swinge and sway in them, that there is no contrarietie for the time, but of constraint they must ioyne to ingender. And why should not this be consonant to truth? why shoulde not these beastes brede in this lande, as well as in other forreigne nations? For we rede that Tigers and dogges in Hircania, that Lyons and Dogges in Arcadia, and that wolfes and dogges in Francia, couple and procreate. In men and wemen also lyghtened with the lantarne of reason (but vtterly voide of vertue) that foolishe, frantique, and fleshely action) yet naturally sealed in vs) worketh so effectuously, yt many tymes it doth reconcile enimyes, set foes at freendship, vnanimitie, & atonement, as Moria mencioneth. The Vrcane which is bred of a beare and a dogge,

Is fearce, is fell, is stoute and stronge,
And byteth sore to fleshe and bone,
His furious force indureth longe
In rage he will be rulde of none.

That I may vse the wordes of the Pt Gratius. This dogge exceedeth all other in cruell conditions, his lering and fleering lookes, his stearne and sauage vissage, maketh him in sight feareful and terrible, he is violent in fighting, & wheresoeuer he setteth his tenterhooke teeth, he taketh such sure & fast hold that a man may sooner teare and rende him in sunder, then lose him and seperate his happes. He passeth not for the Wolfe, the Beare, the Lyon, nor the Bull, and may wortherly (as I thinke) be companio~ with Alexanders dogge which came out of India But of these, thus much, and thus farre may seeme sufficient.

A starte to outlandishe Dogges in this conclusion, not mpertinent to the Authors purpose.

VSe and custome hath intertaines other dogges of an outlandishe kinde, but a fewe and the same beyng of a pretty bygnesse, I meane Ireland, dogges curled & rough al ouer, which by reason of the lenght of their heare make showe neither of face nor of body. And yet these rrres, forsoothe because they are so straunge are greatly set by, esteemed, taken , and made of many times in the roome of the Spaniell gentle or comforter. The natures of men is so moued, nay rather marryed to nouelties without all reason, wyt, iudgement or perseueraunce, .

Outlandishe toyes we take with delight,

Things of our owne nation we haue in despight.

Which fault remaineth not in vs concerning dogges only, but for artificers also. And why? it is to manyfest that wee disdayne and contempne our owne workmen, be they neuer so skilfull, be they neuer so cunning, be they neuer so excellent. A beggerly beast brought out of barbarous borders, fro~ the vttermost countryes Northward, &c. we stare at, we gase at, we muse, we maruaile at, like an asse of Cumanum, like Thales with the brasen shancks, like the man in the Moone.

The which default Hippocrates marcked when he was alyue, as euidently appeareth in the beginnyng of his booke , so intituled and named:

And we in our worcke entituled De Ephemera Britanica, to the people of England haue more plentifully expressed. In this kinde looke which is most blocklishe, and yet most waspishe, the same is most estemed, and not amonge Citizens onely and iolly gentlemen, but among lustie Lordes also, and noble men, and daintie courtier ruffling in their ryotous ragges. Further I am not to wade in the foorde of this discourse, because it was my purpose to satisfie your expectation with a short treatise (most learned Conrade) not wearysome for me to wryte, nor tedious for you to peruse. Among other things which you haue receaued at my handes heretofore, I remember that I wrote a seuerall description of the Getulian Dogge, because there are but a fewe of them and therefore very seldome sene. As touching Dogges of other kyndes you your selfe haue taken earnest paine, in writing of them both lyuely, learnedly, and largely. But because we haue drawne this libell more at length then the former which I sent you (and yet briefer then the nature of the thing myght well beare) regardyng your more earnest and necessary studdies. I will conclude makyng a rehearsall notwithstanding (for memoryes sake) of certaine specialties contayned in the whole body of this my breuiary. And because you participate principall pleasure in the knowledge of the common and vsuall names of Dogges (as I gather by the course of your letters) I suppose it not amysse to deliuer vnto you a shorte table contayning as well the Latine as the Englishe names, and to render a reason of euery particular appellation, to th'intent that no scruple may remaine in this point, but that euery thing may bee sifted to the bare bottome.

A Diall pertaining to the fifte Section.

Dogges contained in this last Diall or Table are

* The wapp or warner, called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The Turnespet, called in Latine Canes Rustici.
* The dauncer, called in Latine Canes Rustici.

A Supplement or Addition, containing a demonstration of Dogges names how they had their Originall.

THe names contayned in the generall table, for so much as they signifie nothing to you being a straunger, and ignoraunt of the Englishe tounge, except they be interpreted: As we haue giuen a reason before of ye latine words so meane we to doe no lesse of the Englishe that euery thing maye be manyfest vnto your vnderstanding. Wherein I intende to obserue the same order which I haue followed before.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the first section.

SAgax, in Englishe Hunde, is deriued of our English word hunte. One letter chaunged in another, namely, T, into D, as Hunt, Hunide, whom (if you coniecture to be so named of your country worde Hunde which signifieth the generall name Dogge, because of the similitude and likenesse of the wordes I will not stand in contradiction (friende Gesner) for so much as we retaine among vs at this day many Dutche wordes which the Saxons left at such time as they occupyed this country of Britane. Thus much also vnderstand, that as in your language Hunde is the common word, so in our naturall tounge dogge, is the vniuersall, but Hunde is perticuler and a speciall, for it signifieth such a dogge onely as serueth to hunt, and therfore it is called a hunde.

Of the Gasehounde.

The Gasehounde called in latine Agasaeus, hath his name of the sharpenesse and stedfastnesse of his eyesight. Ey which vertue he compasseth that which otherwise he cannot by smelling attaine. As we haue made former relation, for to gase is earnestly to viewe and beholde, from whence floweth the deriuation of this dogges name.

Of the Grehounde.

The Grehounde called Leporarius, hath his name of this word, Gre, which word soundeth, Gradus in latine, in Englishe degree. Because among all dogges these are the most principall, occupying the chiefest place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the gentle kinde of houndes.

Of the Leyner or the Lyemmer.

This dogge is called a Leuyner, for his lyghtnesse, which in latine soundeth Leuitas. Or a Lyemmer whsch worde is borrowed of Lyemme, which the latinists name Lorum: and wherefore we call him a Leuyner of this worde Leuitas? (as we doe many things besides) why we deriue and drawe a thousand of our tearmes, out of the Greeke, the Latine, the Italian, the Dutch, the French, and the Spanishe tounge? (Out of which fountaines in deede, they had their originall issue.) How many words are buryed in the graue of forgetfulnes? growne out of vse? wrested awaye? and peruersly corrupted by diuers defaultes? we wil declare at large in our booke intituled, Symphonia vocum Britannicarum.

Of the Tumbler.

Among houndes the Tumbler called in latine Vertagus, is the last, which commeth of this worde Tumbler flowyng first of al out of the French fountaine. For as we say Tumble so they, Tumbier, reseruing one sense and signification, which the latinists comprehende vnder this worde Vertere, So that we se thus much, that Tumbler commeth of Tumbier, the vowell, I, chaunged into the Liquid, L, after ye maner of our speache. Contrary to the French and the Italian tounge. In which two languages, A Liquid before a Vowell for the most part is turned into another Vowell, As, may be perceaued in the example of these two wordes Implere & plano, for Impiere & piano, L, before, E, chaunged into, I, and L, before A, turned into I, also. This I thought conuenient for a taste.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the second Section.

AFter such as serue for hunting orderly doe follow such as serue for hawking and fowling, Among which the principall and chiefest is the Spaniell, called in Latine Hispaniolus, borrowing his name of Hispania Spaine, wherein we Englishe men not pronouncing the Aspiration H, Nor the Vowell I, for quicknesse and redinesse of speach say roundly A Spaniell.

Of the Setter.

The second sort of this second diuision and second section, is called a Setter, in latine Index, Of the worde Set which signifieth in Englishe that which the Latinistes meane by this word Locum designare, ye reason is rehersed before more largely, it shall not neede to make a new repetition.

Of the water Spaniell or Finder.

The water Spaniell consequently followeth, called in Latine Aquaticus, in English a waterspaniell, which name is compounde of two simple wordes, namely Water, which in Latine sou~deth Aqua, wherin he swymmeth. And Spaine, Hispania, the country fro~ whence they came, Not that England wanteth such kinde of Dogges, (for they are naturally bred and ingendred in this country.) But because they beare the generall and common name of these Dogges synce the time they were first brought ouer out of Spaine. And wee make a certaine difference in this sort of Dogges, eyther for some thing which in theyr voyce is to be marked, or for some thing which in their qualities is to be considered, as for an example in this kinde called the Spaniell by the apposition and putting to of this word water, which two coupled together sounde waterspaniell He is also called a fynder, in Latine Inquisitor, because that by serious and secure seeking, he findeth such things as be lost, which word Finde in English is that which the Latines meane by this Uerbe Inuenire. This dogge hath this name of his property because the principall point of his seruice consisteth in the premisses.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the thirde Section.

NOw leauing the suruiewe of hunting and hauking dogs, it remaineth that we runne ouer the residue, whereof some be called, fine dogs, some course, other some mungrels or rascalls. The first is the Spaniell gentle called Canis Meltaeus, because it is a kinde of dogge accepted among gentles, Nobles, Lordes, Ladies, &c. who make much of them vouchsafeing to admit them so farre into their company that they will not onely lull them in theyr lappes, but kysse them with their lippes, and make them theyr prettie playfellowes. Such a one was Gorgons litle puppie mencioned by Theocritus in Siracusis, who taking his iourney, straightly charged & commaunded his mayde to se to his Dogge as charely and warely as to his childe: To call him in alwayes that he wandred not abroade, as well as to rock the babe a slepe, crying in the cradle. This puppitly and peasantly curre. (which some frumpingly tearme fysteing hounds) serue in a maner to no good vse except, (As we haue made former relation) to succour and strengthen quailing and quamming stomackes, to bewray bawdery, and filthy abhominable leudnesse (which a litle dogge of this kinde did in Siciliae) As Aelianus in his .7. booke of beastes and .27. chapter recordeth.

The names of such dogges as be contained in the fourth Section.

OF dogges vnder the courser kinde, we will deale first with the shepherds dogge, whom we call the Bandogge, the Tydogge, or the Mastyue, the first name is imputed to him for seruice Quoniam pastori famulatur, because he is at the shepherds his masters commaundement. The seconde a Ligamento of the and or chaine wherewith he is tyed, The thirde a Sagina. Of the fatnesse of his body. For this kinde of dogge which is vsually tyed, is myghty, grosse, and fat fed. I know this that Augustinus Niphus, calleth this Mastinus (which we call Mastinus.) And that Albertus writeth how the Lyciscu is ingendred by a beare and a wolfe. Notwithstanding the self same Author taketh it for the most part pro Molosso. A dogge of such a countrey.

The names of such dogges as be contained in the fifte Section.

OF mungrels and rascalls somwhat is to be spoken. And among these, of ye VVappe or Turnespet, which name is made of two simple words, that is, of Turne, which in latine soundeth Vertere, and of spete which is Veru, or spede, for the Englishe word inclineth closer to the Italian imitation: Veruuersator, Turnspet. He is called also VVaupe, of the naturall noise of his voyce VVau, which he maketh in barcking. But for the better and the redyer sounde, the vowell, u, is chaunged into the co~sonant, p, so yt for waupe we say wappe. And yet I wot well that Nonius borroweth his Baubari of the naturall voyce Bau, as the Graecians doe their of wau, Now when you vnderstand this that Saltaro in latine signifieth Dansare in Englishe. And that our dogge thereon is called a daunser and in the latine Saltator, you are so farre taught as you were desirous to learne, And now suppose I, there remaineth nothing, but that your request is fully accomplished.

The winding of this worke, called the Supplement, &c.

THus (Friend Gesner) you haue, not only the kindes of our countrey dogges, but their names also, as well in latine as in Englishe, their offices, seruices, diuersities, natures, & properties, that you can demaunde no more of me in this matter. And albeit I haue not satisfied your minde peradue~ture (who suspectest al spede in the performaunce of your requeste employed, to be mere delayes) because I stayde the setting fourth of that vnperfect pamphlet which, fiue yeares ago, I sent to you as to a priuate friende for your owne reding, and not to be printed, and so made common, yet I hope (hauing like the beare lickt ouer my younge) I haue waded in this worke to your contentation, which delay hath made somewhat better and , after witte more meete to be perused.

The ende of this treatise.

FINIS.

An Alphabeticall Index, declaring the whole discourse of this abridgement. The number importeth the Page.

A.

* A Bridgement of Dogges. 1.
* Abstinence from lost goods. 27.
* Aelianus his opinion of bloodhoundes. 6.
* Aelianus and Aelius, opinion of of the beauer. 19.
* Alfredus maintained iustice. 27
* An example of rebellion, and the reward of the same. 26
* An example of loue in a dogge. 31
* Arcadian dogge. 36

B.

* Bandogges bayte the Beare and the Bull. 25
* Blondus opinion of a dogge. 30
* Blooddy and butcherlye curres. 32
* Beauer called a water dogge. 19
* Beauer wherein hee is lyke a dogge. 19
* Beasts preuented of succor. 5
* Bloodhoundes howe they are knowne. 5
* Bloodhounds conditions in hu~ting. ibidem
* Bloodhounds whence they borrowe their names. ibid.
* Bloohoundes pursue without wearinesse. 6
* Bloodhoundes discerne theeues from true men. 6
* Bloodhoundes hunte by water and by land. ibid.
* Bloodhoundes whne they cease from hunting. ibidem.
* Bloodhoundes why they are kept close in the daye, and let lose in the night. ibide.
* Bloodhounds haue not lybertye alwayes to raunge at wyll. 7
* Bloodhoundes are their maisters guides. ibid.
* Borders of England pestred with pylferers. ibidem.
* Bloodhounds why hey are vsed in England and Scotland. ibi.
* Bloodhoundes take not the water naturally. ibidem.
* Bloodhoundes called Brache in Scottishe. ibidem.
* Bloodhounds when they barck. 8
* Butchers dogge. 28
* Butchers dogge why so called. ibide.

C.

* Caius booke of dogges twyse written. 1
* Conny is not hunted. 4
* Connye caught with the ferryt. ibidem.
* Conny taken with the net. ibi.
* Continuaunce of tyme breedeth cunning. 8
* Castle of Flint. 10
* Cunnies preuented of succor. 11
* Callimachus. 20
* Co~forter called Meliteus. ibid.
* Comforters proportion described. ibide.
* Comforters condicions declared. ibidem.
* Comforters to what ende they serue. ibidem
* Comforters the pretier, the pleasaunter. 21
* Comforters, companions of ydle dames. ibidem
* Comforters why they are so much estemed among gentlefolkes. ibidem.
* Comforters, what vertue is in them. ibide.
* Conditions natural, som secrete, some manifest. ibide.
* Comforters called by sundrye names. ibide.
* Cicero pro. S. Ross. 26
* Countrey cotages annoyed with theeues. ibidem
* Capitolium kept dogges at the common charge. ibide.
* Carrier why he is so called. 28
* Carriers seruice and properties. ibidem.
* Comeparcke, a perillous place. 30
* Co~mendation of the mastiue. 32

D.

* Dogges for hunting two kindes generally. 2
* Diuerse dogges diuerse vses. 4
* Deceipt is th'instrument of the Tumbler. 12
* Dogges for the faulcon, the phesaunt, aud the partridge. 15
* Dogs are houshold seruants. 16
* Ducks deceaue both dogge and maister. 17
* Ducks subtyle of nature. ibi.
* Ducks disse~ble weaknesse. ibi.
* Ducks prudent and prouident. ibidem.
* Ducks regarde them selues and their broode. ibid.
* Dogges of a course kind. ibi.
* Dissembling theeues. 27
* Dissembling dogges. 30
* Defending dogges stick to their maisters to the death. ibide.
* Defending dogges greedy of reuengement. ibidem
* Diuersitie of mastiues. 32
* Daungerous dogges. ibid.
* Daunsers qualities. 35
* Daunsers begge for their meate. ibidem
* Daunsers vsed for lucre and gaine. ibid.
* Dogges wonderfullye ingendred. ibidem.

E.

* England is not without Scottish dogges. 2
* Election in a gase hound. 8
* England and VVales are cleare from wolues. 24
* Edgar what tyme king of England. ibidem
* Espirus a countrey in Graecia. 28

F.

* Foxe hunted by the gasehound. 8
* Flight preuenteth peryl. 9
* Froisart historiographer. 10
* Flint Castle. ibide.
* French dogges bowe their skins be speckled. 15
* Fisher dogge none in Englande. 18
* Fisher dogge, doubtfull if there be any such. ibidem.
* Faulcon and an Eagle fight. 26
* Faulcon kylled for fighting with an Eagle. ibid.
* Fire betraied by a dogge. 30
* Fire raked by a dogge. 31.
* Farmars keepe dogges. ibid.
* Feareful dogges barke sorest. 32
* Foxes kept for sundrye causes. 36
* Foxes holsome in houses. ibid.

G.

* Gesner desirous of knowledge. 1
* Gesner earnest in experimentes. ibi.
* Gasehounde whence he hath his name. 9
* Gasehoundes vsed in the North. ibidem
* Gasehound somtimes loseth his waye. ibidem.
* Grehound light footed. ibid.
* Grehounds special seruice. ibi.
* Grehoundes strong and swifte. ibidem
* Grehounds game. 10.
* Grehounds spare of body. ibi.
* Grehounds nature wonderfull. ibid.
* Grehound of King Richarde. ibid.
* Gentle dogge. 14
* Gratius Poet his opinion. 37
* Getulian dogge. 38

H.

* Hunting wherin it consisteth. 2
* Hunting and fowleing doo differ. 3
* Hunting dogges, fiue speciall kinds. ibid.
* Harryer excelleth in smelling. ibidem
* Harryer how he is known. ibi.
* Hare hunted by the gasehound. 8
* Henry Duke of Lancaster. 10
* Hole of the Conny, their hauen of health. 11
* Hare daunsing in measure. 16
* Hare beating and thumping a dogge. ibidem
* Heare a hinderaunce to the water Spaniell in swymming. 17
* Heare an vnprofitable burthen. ibi.
* Hector Boethus. 18
* Henrie the seuenth. 26
* Henries commaundement to hang all bandogges. ibid.
* Henries Faulconer, and his Faulcon. ibi.
* Hippocrates. 38

I.

* Iustice mayntained by Alfred. 7
* Ingulphus Croyladensis historiographer. 28
* Ianus watching. 31
* Indian dogges. 37
* Iseland curres, rough and rugged. ibid.
* Iselande curres mutch sette by. ibidem

K.

* King Richarde of England. 10
* King Edgars trybute out of VVales. 23
* King Henrie the seuenth. 26
* King of all beasts, the Lyon. ibi.
* King of all Birds, the Eagle. ibi.
* Keepers seruice. 28
* Kingston, o Kingstoune verye famous in olde time. 30
* Kinges crowned at Kingstoune, to the number of eyght, theyr names are these. Edward the first, Athelstan, Edmunde, Aldred, Edwin, Edgar, Edeldred, Edwarde, syrnamed Yron rybbes. ibid.

L.

* Leuiner quicke of smelling, and swyft in running. 10
* Leuiner, why so called. ibi.
* Leuiner foloweth the game eagerly. ibi.
* Leuiner taketh his pray speedilie. ibid.
* Lyon king of all beasts. 26
* Lust of the flesh reconcileth enemies. 36

M.

* Maisters becke a direction to the gasehound. 9
* Melita or Malta. 20
* Mastiues proportio~ described 20
* Mastiue, why he is called Villaticus. ibi.
* Mastiues vse and seruice. ibi.
* Mastiues are mankind. ibi.
* Mastiues of great might. 26
* Molossia. 28
* Mooner, why so termed. 29
* Mooner watchfull. ibi.
* Mungellesl. 24
* Maiserles men carrie Apes about. 35
* Man in the moone. 37

N.

* Nature hath made some dogges for hunting. 4
* Naturall properties of the water spaniel. 16
* No VVolues in Englande nor VVales. 24
* No place free from theeues. 27
* Nothing escapeth the spoiler. 28
* Nonius bau wan. 29
* Names of the mastiue. 33
* Names of the spaniel gentle. 22
* Names of Dogges whence they were deriued. 39.40.41.42. &c.

O.

* One Dogge hunteth diuerse beastes. 4
* Owners of bloudhoundes howe they vse them. 6
* Order of the Tumbler in hunting. 11
* Of the Cumane asse. 37
* Of brasen shanckt Thales. ibi.
* Oter. 7

P.

* Properties of a bloudhound issuing from desire. 7
* Proportion and making of the water spaniel. 17
* Pupine a byrd and a fyshe. 18
* Princes pallace pestered with theeues. 26
* Paris in Fraunce. 30

R.

* Rome maintained dogges. 28
* Rare toyes meete for Englishemen. 37

S.

* Smelling is not incident to the gasehound. 8
* Spaniels of a gentle kinde. 14
* Spaniels two sortes. ibide.
* Spaniel of the lande what properties. ibidem.
* Spaniel for the hauke and the nette. ibide.
* Spaniels some haue speciall names. ibide.
* Spaniel a name vniuersall. 15
* Spaniels the colour of their skinnes. ibidem.
* Setters make no noyse, or very litle, in their game. ibidem.
* Setters giue attendaunce. ibide.
* Setters behauiour. ibide.
* Setter whence he hath his name. 16
* Sea calfe not numbred amonge Englishe dogges. 19
* Sea calfe called a dogge fishe. ibi.
* Seele or sea veale. ibidem.
* Spaniell gentle or the comforter. 20
* Shepherdes dogge. 23. The necessity of their seruice. ibi. The proportion of them. ibidem.
Shepherdes what benefite they reape by their dogges. 24
* Sheepherdes in what countreys they go before their sheepe. ibidem.
* Sheepe howe they flocke at the sheepherds whistle. ibid.
* Sheepherds Dogge choose and take. ibid.
* Salacones vaineglorious. 27

T.

* Terrars hunt the badger and the Foxe. 4
* Terrars hunt as ferryts hunt. ibi.
* Terrars conditions. ibid.
* Terrars holde fast with theyr teeth. 5
* Tumblers crafty and fraudulent. 11
* Tumblers why so named. ibid. their trade in hu~ting. ibi. their dissembling of friendship. ibi. they hunt against the wind 12
* Theeuish dogges. ibidem
* Theeuish Dogge a night curre. ibidem
* Theeues feare no law, 27. Some steale for neede. ibid. Some to maintaine brauery. ibi.
* Tynckers curres beare burthens 29. their conditions. ibi. they loue their masters. ibid.
* Two suiters to one woman. 30
* Turnespet painefull in the kytchen. 24
* Thales with the brasen feete. 37

V.

* Vertue of the comforter. 21
* Valentines law for vagabundes 27
* Virgils vearse. 31

W.

* VVatchwordes make Dogges perfect in game. 8
* VVonder of a Hare of Leuerit. 16
* VVater spaniell called the finder. ibidem
* VVater spaniels what properties. ibidem
* VVater spaniels their proportion. 17. howe they be described by D. Caius. ibidem
* VVhy so called. ibidem
* VVhere their game lyeth and what it is. ibidem
* VVhy they are called fynders. ibidem
* VVanton women, wanton puppies. 20
* VVolues bloudsucking beastes 23. none in England nor wales ibidem. three hundred payde yearely to Prince Edgar. ibid.
* VVarner what seruice he doth. 34
* VVappes vnprofitable dogges. ibidem

Y.

* Young dogges barcke much. 8
* Yolping and yelling in a bandogge. 31
* Yll kinde whelpes not regarded. 31

The ende of the Index.

Faultes escaped thus to b'amended.

* In the last page of the Epistle Dedicatory, Quae for Qui
* Page. 3. Grecians for Graecians,
* Page. 28. Canis Cultos for Canis Custos,
* Page. 38. Britanica for Britannica.

Other faultes we referre to the correction of the Reader.

There be also certaine Accents wanting in the Greke words which, because we had them not, are pretermitted: so haue we byn fayne to let the Greeke words run their full length, for lacke of Abbreuiations.

Studio & industria Abrahami Flemingi.































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